Use the navigation on the left to browse our library of criminal justice resources by topic. Use categories to filter your results.

Please note that the resources within the Justice Library are not endorsed by NAMI and that the resources listed are not inclusive of all of the resources available on the topic.


Assessing the Impact of Crisis Resolution and Home Treatment Teams: A Review of Research
Publication Date: Jun 01 2021
Center for Police Research and Policy
This document provides a review of the research examining the implementation and impact of crisis resolution and home treatment teams. This review is organized into four primary sections. First, the definition and delivery of CRHTT programs are described. Next, the available research on the impact of CRHTTs is discussed. Then, stakeholders’ perceptions of CRHTTs are considered. Finally, a discussion of key research findings and implication for future research and practice is presented.
Decoupling Crisis Response from Policing — A Step Toward Equitable Psychiatric Emergency Services
Publication Date: May 06 2021
The New England Journal of Medicine

Moving toward equitable emergency services

Assessing the Impact of Mobile Crisis Teams: A Review of Research
Publication Date: Mar 01 2021
Center for Police Research and Policy
This document provides a review of the available research on the implementation and impact of MCTs. This review is organized into the following four sections. First, Section II describes the implementation of the mobile crisis team model. Next, Section III outlines the research on the impact of mobile crisis teams on increasing connection to services, reducing pressure on the mental health system, and promoting cost effectiveness. Then, Section IV describes stakeholders’ perceptions of mobile crisis teams, including benefits and challenges. Finally, Section V provides an overall discussion of available research and implications for research and practice.
Assessing the Impact of Co-Responder Team Programs: A Review of Research
Publication Date: Mar 01 2021
Center for Police Research and Policy
This document provides a review of the available research regarding the implementation and impact of co-responder team programs across several communities. This review is organized into four sections. First, the definition and implementation of the co-responder team model are presented. Second, the impact of co-responder team programs on individuals in crisis, the criminal justice system, and the health care system is examined. Next, stakeholders’ perceptions of co-responder team programs and opinions on the elements that make these programs successful are considered. Finally, the implications for future research and practice are reviewed.
Assessing the Impact of Crisis Intervention Teams: A Review of Research
Publication Date: Mar 01 2021
Center for Police Research and Policy

The Best Practice Guide reviews available research on the delivery and impact of police, behavioral health (BH), disability, and community responses to BH and intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD)-related crisis incidents. The chapters of this guide present information on existing response models, identify evidence-informed best practices, and outline key lessons for the development and delivery of crisis response programs designed after these models.
The Community Responder Model: How Cities Can Send the Right Responder to Every 911 Call
Publication Date: Oct 28 2020
Center for American Progress
This report details several existing programs that send nonpolice responders to handle such issues, including the Crisis Assistance Helping Out On The Streets (CAHOOTS) program in Eugene, Oregon.
Cops, Clinicians, or Both? Collaborative Approaches to Responding to Behavioral Health Emergencies
Publication Date: Aug 01 2020
National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors
How a community responds to Behavioral Health (BH) emergencies is both a public health issue and social justice issue. Individuals in BH crisis often receive inadequate care in emergency departments (EDs), boarding for hours or days waiting for treatment. These individuals account for a quarter of police shootings and over 2 million jail bookings per year. Explicit and implicit bias magnify these problems for people of color. Growing bipartisan support for reform provides an unprecedented opportunity for meaningful change, but solutions to this complex issue will require comprehensive systemic approaches. As communities grapple with BH emergencies, the question isn’t whether law enforcement (LE) should respond to BH emergencies, but rather when, how, and with what support. This policy paper reviews best practices for law enforcement (LE) crisis response, outlines the components of a comprehensive continuum of crisis care that provides alternatives to LE involvement and ED utilization, and provides strategies for collaboration and alignment towards common goals. Finally, policy considerations regarding legal statutes, financing, data management, and stakeholder engagement are presented in order to assist communities interested in taking steps to build these needed solutions.
National Guidelines for Behavioral Health Crisis Care Best Practice Toolkit
Publication Date: Feb 24 2020
The National Guidelines for Crisis Care – A Best Practice Toolkit advances national guidelines in crisis care within a toolkit that supports program design, development, implementation and continuous quality improvement efforts. Itis intended to help mental health authorities, agency administrators, service providers, state and local leaders think through and develop the structure of crisis systems that meet community needs. This toolkit includes distinct sections for:
1. Defining national guidelines in crisis care;
2. Tips for implementing care that aligns with national guidelines; and
3. Tools to evaluate alignment of systems to national guidelines. 
Responding to Individuals in Behavioral Health Crisis Via Co-Responder Models: The Roles of Cities, Counties, Law Enforcement, and Providers
Publication Date: Jan 01 2020
National League of Cities
Details the various co-responder models available to city and county leaders. It reflects the growing interest and experimentation with co-response among jurisdictions that are part of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation’s Safety and Justice Challenge (SJC). In addition, the brief builds upon case studies in NLC’s recent series, Addressing Mental Health, Substance Use, and Homelessness, which explores emergency response and crisis stabilization strategies for cities
Effectiveness of Police Crisis Intervention Training Programs
Publication Date: Sep 24 2019
Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online
This article describes the CIT model and reviews several recent systematic analyses of studies concerning the effects of CIT. Studies generally support that CIT has beneficial officer-level outcomes, such as officer satisfaction and self-perception of a reduction in use of force. CIT also likely leads to prebooking diversion from jails to psychiatric facilities. There is little evidence in the peer-reviewed literature, however, that shows CIT's benefits on objective measures of arrests, officer injury, citizen injury, or use of force.
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